AWS Route 53

AWS Route 53

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  • Amazon Route 53 provide highly available and scalable Domain Name system (DNS)
  • Translate domain names of websites or web applications into associated ip addresses.
  • Reliable and cost effective service.

Amazon Route 53 is a part of AWS which provide highly scalable and available Domain Name Server (DNS).

It provide a reliable and cost effective way to translate domain name of any website and application into its IP address.

Developer define the route to end users over internet to their application or web pages by defining domain names such as amazon.com and their associated IP address.

It perform these functions such as

  • Registering domain names
  • Routing internet traffic to particular websites or application
  • Checking the health of resources (web server).

Amazon Route 53 concepts

Domain Registration concepts include:

  • Domain Name
  • Domain Registrar
  • Domain Registry
  • Domain Reseller
  • Top-level Domain
  • Domain Name:

Domain Name is the name that a user types in the address bar of a web browser to access a website or a web application such as example.com.

To make your website or web application available on the Internet, you must register a domain name first.

  • Domain Registrar

Domain Registrar is a company that is accredited by ICANN to process domain registrations for specific top-level domains (TLDs).

For example, Amazon Registrar, Inc. is a domain registrar for .com, .net, and .org domains.

Our registrar associate, Gandi, is a domain registrar for hundreds of TLDs, such as .apartments, .boutique, and camera.

  • Domain Registry

Domain Registry is a company that owns the right to sell domains that have a specific TLDs.

A domain registry defines the rules for registering a domain and  maintains the authoritative database for all of the domain names.

The registry’s database contains information such as contact information and the name servers for each domain.

For example, VeriSign is the registry that owns the right to sell domains that have a .com TLD.

  • Domain Reseller

Domain Reseller is a company that sells domain names for registrars such as Amazon Registrar.

Amazon Route 53 is a domain reseller for Amazon Registrar and for our registrar associate, Gandi.

  • Top-level Domain

Top-level Domain refers to .com, .org, or .edu. There are two types of top-level domains:

1.Generic top-level domains

2.Geographic top-level domains

Health Checking concepts include

  • DNS Failover
  • Endpoints
  • Health Check
  • DNS Failover:

DNS Failover is a method for routing traffic away from unhealthy resources and to healthy resources.

Amazon Route 53 perform health checks to check the health of user’s resources and configure resource record sets in hosted zone to route traffic only to healthy resources.

  • Endpoints

User specify the endpoint by IPv4 address (192.0.2.243), by IPv6 address (2001:0db8:85a3:0000:0000:abcd:0001:2345), or by domain name (example.com) of resources (such as web server or an email server) which are configured for health check.

User’s can create health checks that monitor the status of other health checks or that monitor the alarm state of a CloudWatch alarm.

  • Health Check

An Amazon Route 53 health check component perform these functions:

  • Monitor whether a specified endpoint, such as a web server, is healthy
  • Optionally, get notified when an endpoint becomes unhealthy
  • Optionally, configure DNS failover, which allows you to reroute Internet traffic from an unhealthy resource to a healthy resource

Domain Name System (DNS) concepts include

  • alias resource record set
  • authoritative name server
  • resource record set (DNS record)
  • reusable delegation set
  • subdomain
  • time to live (TTL)
  • IP address
  • name servers
  • private DNS
  • DNS query
  • DNS resolver or recursive name server
  • Domain Name System (DNS)
  • hosted zone
    • Alias Resource set

    It is a type of resource record set that is created by user with Amazon Route 53 to route traffic to AWS resources such as Amazon CloudFront distributions and Amazon S3 buckets.

    • Authoritative name server

    It is a name server that has definitive information about one part of the Domain Name System (DNS) and that responds to requests from a DNS resolver by returning the applicable information.

    • DNS query

    It a request that is submitted by a device, such as a computer or a smartphone, to the Domain Name System (DNS) for a resource that is associated with a domain name.

    • DNS Resolver

    A DNS resolver is also known as a recursive name server because it sends requests to a sequence of authoritative DNS name servers until it gets the response (typically an IP address) that it returns to a user’s device, for example, a web browser on a laptop computer.

    • Domain Name System (DNS)

    DNS is a worldwide network of servers that help computers, smart phones, tablets, and other IP-enabled devices to communicate with one another.

    • Hosted zone

    Hosted zone is a container for resource record sets, which include information about how user want to route traffic for a domain (such as example.com) and all of its subdomains (such as http://www.example.com, retail.example.com).

    • IP address

    IP address is a number that is assigned to a device on the Internet that allows the device to communicate with other devices on the Internet. IP addresses are in one of the following formats:

    Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) format, such as 192.0.2.44

    Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) format, such as 2001:0db8:85a3:0000:0000:abcd:0001:2345

  • Name servers

Name Servers are the Servers in the DNS that help to translate domain names into the IP addresses that computers use to communicate with one another.

Name servers are either recursive name servers (also known as DNS resolver) or authoritative name servers.

  • Private DNS

It is a local version of the DNS that lets the user to route traffic for a domain and its subdomains to Amazon EC2 instances within one or more Amazon VPCs.

  • Resource Record set (DNS Record)

An object in a hosted zone that is use to define how to route traffic for the domain or a subdomain.

  • Reusable Delegation set

It is a set of four authoritative name servers that is use with more than one hosted zone.

  • Subdomain

It is a domain name that has one or more labels prepended to the registered domain name.

  • Time to live (TTL):

TTL indicate the amount of time, in seconds, that user wants a DNS resolver to cache (store) the values for a resource record set before submitting another request to Amazon Route 53 to get the current values for that resource record set.

If the DNS resolver receives another request for the same domain before the TTL expires, the resolver returns the cached value.

Registering Domain Names

To create a website or a web application,

Start with by registering the name of website, known as a domain name.

Domain name is the name, such as example.com, that users enter in a browser to display their websites.

How to register a domain name with Amazon Route 53?

1.Choose a domain name and confirm that it’s available, meaning that no one else has registered with the same domain name.

2.Then Register the domain name with Amazon Route 53. When user register a domain, user must provide names and contact information for the domain owner and other contacts.

3.When domain get registered with Amazon Route 53, the service automatically makes itself the DNS service for the domain by doing the following:

  • Creates a hosted zone that has the same name as that of domain.
  • Assigns a set of four name servers to the hosted zone. (these name servers tell the browser where to find your resources as per http://www.example.com, such as a web server or an Amazon S3 bucket).4.At the end of the registration process, AWS send user’s information to the registrar for the domain.5.The registrar sends user information to the registry for the domain.

    6.The registry stores the information about user’s entered domain in their own database and also stores some of the information in the public WHOIS database.

    Routing Internet traffic to particular web application or websites:

    All computers on the Internet, from smartphone or laptop to the servers that serve content various websites, communicate with one another by using numbers. These numbers, known as IP addresses (IPv4 or IPv6).

    A DNS service such as Amazon Route 53 helps to make connection between domain names of the websites and IP addresses.

Configuring Amazon Route 53 to route internet traffic for various domain:

To route traffic to user resources, user must create resource record sets, also known as records, in hosted zone.

Each record includes information about how user want to route traffic for their domain, such as the following:

  • Name
  • Type
  • Value

How Amazon Route 53 route traffic for particular Domain?

After configuring Amazon Route 53 to route internet traffic to particular resources such as web server or amazon S3 bucket.

Then

What happens in just a few milliseconds when someone requests content for http://www.example.com let see

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Amazon Route 53 health checks monitor the health of user’s resources such as web servers and email servers.

User’s can optionally configure Amazon CloudWatch alarms for their health checks, so that they receive notification when a resource becomes unavailable.

Here’s shown that how health checking works if user want to be notified when a resource becomes unavailable

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To create a health check then specify values that define how to check health, as following:

  • Specify the IP address or domain name of the endpoint, such as a web server, that user want Amazon Route 53 to monitor.
  • Specify the protocol that user want Amazon Route 53 to use to perform the check: HTTP, HTTPS, or TCP.
  • Specify How often user want that Amazon Route 53 to send a request to the endpoint. This is the request interval.
  • Specify How many consecutive times the endpoint must fail to respond to requests before Amazon Route 53 considers it unhealthy. This is the failure threshold.
  • Specify how user want to be notified when Amazon Route 53 detects that the endpoint is unhealthy. When user configure notification, Amazon Route 53 automatically sets a CloudWatch alarm. (CloudWatch uses Amazon SNS to notify users that an endpoint is unhealthy.) (optional)1.Amazon Route 53 starts to send requests to the endpoint at the interval that user specified in the health check.2.If the endpoint responds to the requests, Amazon Route 53 considers the endpoint to be healthy and takes no action.

    3.If the endpoint doesn’t respond to a request, Amazon Route 53 starts to count the number of consecutive requests that the endpoint doesn’t respond to

    • If the count reaches the value that user specified for the failure threshold, Amazon Route 53 considers the endpoint unhealthy.
    • If the endpoint starts to respond again before the count reaches the failure threshold, Amazon Route 53 resets the count to 0, and CloudWatch doesn’t show notification.

    4.If Amazon Route 53 considers the endpoint unhealthy and if user configured notification for the health check, Amazon Route 53 notifies CloudWatch

Amazon Route 53 can be accessed by using following interfaces

  • AWS Management Console
  • AWS SDKs
  • Amazon Route 53 API
  • AWS CLI
  • AWS tools for Windows Powershell

Amazon Route 53 integrates with AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) to provide following services

  • Creating users and groups under the organization’s AWS account
  • Easily sharing of AWS account resources among the users in the account
  • Assigning unique security credentials to each user
  • Granularly control user access to services and resources

IAM and Amazon route 53 use two features to provide securities to user AWS resources

  • Authentication
  • Access Control

Authentication

AWS IAM authenticate the AWS user who is performing various operation on Amazon Route 53 resources, such as registering a domain or updating a resource record set etc.

After authenticating the user’s identity.

Access Control

IAM controls access to AWS by verifying that user have permissions to perform operations and to access resources.

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