Network Topology

1. About Network Topology
2. Client/Server and Peer to Peer Network
3. Types of network Topologies:
● Physical Topology
● Logical Topology
4. Various Types of Physical Topologies:
● Point to Point
● Bus Topology
● Star Topology
● Ring Topology
● Mesh Topology
● Hybrid Topology
● Tree Topology

Network Topology
Network Topology is the arrangement of network, connecting various nodes
(i.e. printer, router,computers and other devices) through line of connection.
It describe the way in which different elements are arranged.
It represents a schematic description of a network.

Network Topology

Different Network Arrangements

Client/Server network
It is designed for the end users called clients, to access resources such as files, songs, video collections or some other services from a central computer called server. In this network, server is a centralized and a powerful computer. Server’s sole purpose is to serve its clients.

Peer to peer network
Peer to peer network is created by connecting two or more computers and they share their resources with each other in the network. Each computer will act as server and client. This network is less expensive as compared to client/server network.

Types of Network Topology

Physical Topology
It refers to the layout of cabling, the location of the nodes and the interconnection between the nodes and the cabling. Physicals topology is of various kinds.

Logical Topology
It refers to the flow of data within the network, regardless of its physical design. It defines how the data should transferred between nodes or devices.

Types of Physical Topology
1. Point to point topology
2. Bus topology
3. Star topology
4. Ring topology
5. Mesh topology
6. Hybrid topology
7. Tree topology

 1. Point to Point topology
Point to Point topology has a dedicated path between two nodes or devices.
It is a simplest topology.
Example: A Child’s Tin Can Telephone.

Ease of installation and maintenance.
Easy to understand.
Connections are reliable, secure and fast.


As we require lots of cables to design this network so this is an expensive network.

If connection at one end breaks, then their is no communication between two devices.

2. Bus Topology
In this topology, each nodes are connected to a single cable through interface
The central cable is the backbone of the network and is known as bus.
The signals are travel in both direction alternately.
The data is send to all the nodes which are connected to central cable but
intended node accept the data by matching its machine code.
This topology is used in small network.

Types of Bus topology

Linear bus Topology

In this type of topology, the nodes are connected to a common transmission medium which has exactly two endpoints.

Distributed bus topology
In this type of topology, the nodes are connected to a common transmission medium which has two or more endpoints. These endpoints are created by adding branches to the main section of the transmission medium.

3. Star Topology
In star topology, each node is connected to a single central node called hub,
router or switch.
Each node is connected through a point to point connection.
Central node act as a signal repeater.
Every node is indirectly connected to each other node with the help of central
Example: Client connected to the server

Types of Star Topology

Extended Star Topology
Extended star topology is a network arrangement in which there are two or more repeaters between the
central node. Repeaters are installed to extend the maximum transmission distance.
Distributed Star Topology
Distributed star topology is a type which represents linear arrangement of network devices i.e. Daisy Chained.
In this network, repeaters are installed to extend the distance of transmission.

Star Topology
Easy to troubleshoot.
Easy to install and maintain.
Hub can easily be upgrade.
Fast connection with few nodes and less traffic.

Cost of installation is high.
If the central node stop working then the whole system will fails.
Performance is based on the Hub that is it depend upon its capacity.

4. Ring Topology
Ring topology is a bus topology in a closed loop.
Each node is directly connected to other node within the same network.
When one node sends the data, then it passes through each intermediate
nodes in the ring until it reaches its destination.
Each intermediate nodes repeat/retransmit the data to keep signal strong.

Types of Ring topology

Unidirectional Ring Topology
It handles the data traffic in one direction either clockwise or anticlockwise.
This topology is also known as half duplex network.
The unidirectional ring topology is easy to maintain as compared to bidirectional ring topology

Bidirectional ring topology
It handles the data traffic in both the directions.
This topology is also known as full duplex network.

Ring Topology

Network is cheap to install.
Network can easily be expand.
High performance network.

Difficult to troubleshoot this network.
Adding or deleting of nodes disturb the whole network.
Failure of one node disturb the other nodes.

5. Mesh Topology
Mesh network represent the point to point connection of each node.
Mesh network has n(n-1)/2 physical channel to link n devices.

Types of Mesh Network

Fully Connected Mesh Network
In this network, every node in the network has a connection to each of the other node in that network

Partially Connected Mesh Network 
In this network, at least two of the node in the network connected to multiple other nodes in that network.

Mesh Network

This network is a secure network as each node has its own dedicated path.
It is robust.
Easy to troubleshoot.

It is difficult to install and configure.
High installation cost.
Difficult to understand.

6. Hybrid Network
Hybrid topology is the mixture of one or more topologies including bus, mesh,
star and tree topologies etc.
Example: If there is a ring topology in one department and the bus topology in
another and we connect the both department
Connecting these two topology forms the Hybrid topology.

Hybrid Topology

Easy to troubleshoot.
Network can easily be expand.

Design is complex.
Network installation is difficult.
Expensive network.

7. Tree Topology
There is a root node in the network and all the other nodes are connected to
the root node.
This form a Hierarchy.
Used in Wide Area Network.

Expansion of network is easy.
Ease of installation and maintenance.
Error detection is easy.

Expensive network as more cables are required
If the root node stop functioning then the whole network will fail

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