● Physical Security
● Network Security
● Endpoint security

Security is the degree of protection from harm.
It applies to any vulnerable and valuable asset such as a person, community,
item, nation or organization.
Security in IT is the defense of digital data and IT assets against internal and
external, malicious and accidental threats.
The defense includes detection, prevention and response to threats by using
various security policies, software tools and IT services.

Types of security used to harden the network, system and organization are
1. Physical Security
2. Network Security
3. Endpoint Security

Physical Security:
Physical security is the protection of personnel, hardware, software, networks
and data from physical action.
It includes protection from fire, flood, natural disasters, theft, vandalism and
Physical security is obtained by:
1. Access Control
2. Monitoring by Surveillance and testing

Physical Security:
1. Access Control:
Steps for prevention and controlling access to Physical resources are:
● Lock the doors of network closet or equipment rooms and giving
access keys and cards to trustworthy staff.
● Locking front door of institution or enterprise to prevent ‘tailgating’.
(Mantrap system is used to prevent tailgating.)
● Using Biometric authorization for opening a door or getting access to
any physical resources such as fingerprint reader, facial recognition
cameras, voice analyzer etc.
2. Monitoring by Surveillance and testing:
Authorized peoples are kept under surveillance to prevent insider threats.
Monitoring is done using video surveillance of facilities and assets.
Two type of video surveillance is used :
● Closed Circuit Television (CCTV)
● IP cameras

Physical Security

CCTV Camera
1. CCTV camera are analog
2. Analog camera connects over
RJ Cable and does not need
any network.
3. Analog camera cannot be
accessed directly by mobile
4. Video quality is not so good.
5. Analog cameras need
hardware for recording.

IP Camera
1. IP camera are digital cameras.
2. IP Camera needs network and
connects using CAT6 Cable
3. IP Camera can be access from
anywhere using the IP Address
without any DVR/NVR
4. IP Cameras give better video
then CCTV Camera.
5. IP Camera video can be
recorded on a PC/Workstation
small software.

Network Security
Network security is a specialized field in networking that include protection of
computer network infrastructure.
Network securities are designed to protect the usability and integrity of your
network and data.
It includes both hardware and software technologies.
It consists of the policies and practices adopted to prevent and monitor
unauthorized access, misuse, modification of computer network and network
Steps involve in providing security to computer network are:
● Securing and controlling user account (Username and password)
● Installation of ‘Edge’ devices which work with the coordination of other
devices and controllers.
● Using Posture Validation approach, in this a node or device is verify on
certain conditions before it is allowed to connect to a network.
● Installing querying agents such as persistent agent and non-persistent
● Testing guest or Quarantine network.
Endpoint Security:
Endpoint Security is a security applied to endpoint devices such as computer,
mobile phones etc which communicates with other devices on a network.
Endpoint Security on the network include clients and servers — that send or
receive data, services or applications.
It is a process of securing individual computer or device.
Technique used to secure Endpoint devices are:
1. Malware and Anti-Malware.
2. Using Strong password at endpoint device

Endpoint Security:
Prevention from Malware attack:
When a malware attack occur at end devices then the system become slow,
application crashes out or web browser open unwanted websites.
To deal with malware attack perform these tasks:
● Installing Anti-Malware program
● Providing training to the user how to prevent the occurrence of attack
and if attack occur, how to deal with it.
● Patching and updating should be done properly.
Anti-Malware Program:
Anti-Malware software or program protects against attack caused by many
types of malware such as viruses, worms, Trojan horses, spyware and adware.
It work in two modes:
● Active seek & destroy mode
● Passive entry mode (Virus Shield)